18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans were performed on 27 patients with unresectable stage IIIC or IV melanoma after prolonged treatment with anti-PD-1 antibodies to examine the hypothesis that patients with prolonged response to treatment may have metabolically inactive lesions by FDG-PET. Scans were performed at a median of 15.2 months (range 12–29 months) after starting treatment. Overall, 15 of 27 (56%) patients had a positive FDG-PET scan. Eight patients with positive scans underwent biopsy; 5 of 8 (62%) were melanoma and 3 of 8 (38%) were immune cell infiltrates. Of the 12 patients with negative FDG-PET scans, six had residual computerized tomography-visible lesions, five have ceased treatment, and none have recurred with follow-up of 6–10 months. Patients with residual metastases after a prolonged period without progression on anti-PD-1 therapy may have metabolically inactive lesions. Isolated metabolically active lesions in clinically well patients may reveal immune cell infiltrates rather than melanoma.