Returns on education amongst men in England and Wales: The impact of residential segregation and ethno-religious background

Nabil Khattab*, Ron Johnston, Ibrahim Sirkeci, Tariq Modood

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Individuals' occupational and educational attainment is influenced by their ethnicity, religion and colour in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper, we analyse the impact of ethnicity, religion and colour along with residential segregation. 11By residential segregation we mean here the level of residential concentration of all non-white groups counted together and our threshold for segregation 20% is much lower than that in much of the literature, namely 20% of members of non-white minorities resident in an area. and socio-economic deprivation on returns to education for men in England and Wales. We analyse the 2001 UK census data by employing multi-level logistic regression models. It is found that non-White groups including Christian Black-African, UK born Sikh-Indians and South Asian Muslims are found to suffer an ethnic penalty compared to Christian White-British. While there is evidence to suggest that Muslim men may experience a greater penalty compared to some non-Whites other non-Muslim groups too face ethno-religious penalties, sometimes even more severely such as in the case of Christian Black-Africans. Socio-economic difficulties faced by ethnic minorities are also linked to spatial segregation only when associated with high levels of area deprivation. This suggests that what matters may not be segregation per se, but whether or not it is associated with deprivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)296-309
Number of pages14
JournalResearch in Social Stratification and Mobility
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2012


  • Britain
  • Ethnicity
  • Labour market
  • Religion
  • Returns on education
  • Segregation
  • UK Census 2001


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