Reversibility and biological machines

B. F. Gray*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


THE application of the traditional, macroscopic arguments of thermodynamics to very small systems (for instance, using individual cross bridges to generate force in striated muscle, which use "one molecule of ATP at a time"1), has been questioned2. It is demonstrated here that they cannot be applied to very small systems without very drastic modification. That is because of the requirements of quantum theory and information theory. The modifications are substantial and inescapable for systems such as individual cross bridges although they become negligible for macroscopic systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)436-437
Number of pages2
Issue number5491
Publication statusPublished - 1975
Externally publishedYes


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