Reversible and blind database watermarking using difference expansion

Gaurav Gupta*, Josef Pieprzyk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


There has been significant research in the field of database watermarking recently. However, there has not been sufficient attention given to the requirement of providing reversibility (the ability to revert back to original relation from watermarked relation) and blindness (not needing the original relation for detection purpose) at the same time. This model has several disadvantages over reversible and blind watermarking (requiring only the watermarked relation and secret key from which the watermark is detected and the original relation is restored) including the inability to identify the rightful owner in case of successful secondary watermarking, the inability to revert the relation to the original data set (required in high precision industries) and the requirement to store the unmarked relation at a secure secondary storage. To overcome these problems, we propose a watermarking scheme that is reversible as well as blind. We utilize difference expansion on integers to achieve reversibility. The major advantages provided by our scheme are reversibility to a high quality original data set, rightful owner identification, resistance against secondary watermarking attacks, and no need to store the original database at a secure secondary storage. We have implemented our scheme and results show the success rate is limited to 11 % even when 48% tuples are modified. [Article copies are available for purchase from]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-54
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009

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