Review of dispersal, survival, and establishment of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera:Tephritidae) for quarantine purposes

Bernard C. Dominiak

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23 Citations (Scopus)


The fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a species of significant quarantine concern to many countries. Currently, B. tryoni is found in parts of Australia and on some Pacific islands. Understanding dispersal behavior is important for the development of scientifically justified trade restrictions or quarantine distances for B. tryoni. These distances ensure adequate protection for overseas markets while also ensuring that growers sufficiently distant from the affected area are able to retain unrestricted access to markets. This review considers scientific data on dispersal and uses this information to make recommendations for appropriate quarantine distances. Most studies conclude that the lifetime dispersal distance of this species rarely exceeds 1 km, although three studies indicate that longer dispersal distances of a small number of individuals may occasionally occur. These short dispersal distances are consistent with findings for other fruit fly species. Triggers for long-distance dispersal, the fate of these individual flies, nutritional requirements to support this dispersal, and reasons for discrepancies in the dispersal distances reported in different studies are reviewed. Reasons for the inability of B. tryoni to establish along southern parts of the east coast of Australia before European colonization are postulated. A proposed quarantine distance is based on the scientific basis of the mean and 3 SD, with a 3-fold level of protection based on distance. It is proposed that an area contained by a circle with a radius of 1.2 km is a reasonable quarantine area for B. tryoni outbreaks where flies are contained within 200 m of an epicenter. Where total trappings are contained within 400 m of the epicenter, a quarantine distance of 2.4 km is recommended. Three other quarantine distances are proposed based on the formula by using the mean.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)434-446
Number of pages13
JournalAnnals of the Entomological Society of America
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2012


  • epicenter
  • flight distance
  • release point
  • trade
  • treatment

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