Review of effect of oxygen on room temperature ductility of titanium and titanium alloys

M. Yan, W. Xu, M. S. Dargusch, H. P. Tang, M. Brandt, M. Qian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

200 Citations (Scopus)


Room temperature tensile ductility is an important property of titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys for structural applications. This article reviews the dependency of tensile ductility on oxygen for α-Ti, (α+β)-Ti and β-Ti alloys fabricated via traditional ingot metallurgy (IM), powder metallurgy (PM) and additive manufacturing (AM) or three-dimensional printing methods and recent advances in understanding the effect of oxygen on ductility. Seven mechanisms have been discussed based on case studies of individual titanium materials reported in literature. The dependency of ductility on oxygen is determined by both the composition and microstructure of the titanium alloy. For Ti-6Al-4V (wt-%), as sintered Ti-6Al-4V shows a critical oxygen level of about 0?33 wt-% while additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V exhibits different critical levels ranging from about 0?22% to well above 0?4% depending on microstructure. Rare earth (RE) elements are effective scavengers of oxygen in titanium materials even just with a small addition (e.g. 0?1 wt-%), irrespective of the manufacturing method (IM, PM and AM). High cycle fatigue experiments revealed no initiation of fatigue cracks from the resulting RE oxide particles over the size range from submicrometres to a few micrometres. A small addition of RE elements offers a practical and affordable approach to mitigating the detrimental effect of oxygen on ductility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-257
Number of pages7
JournalPowder Metallurgy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Oxygen
  • Powder metallurgy
  • Tensile ductility
  • Titanium alloys


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