The genus Troposodon contains at least five species, including Troposodon bowensis sp. nov. from the early Pliocene Bow local fauna of New South Wales, and Troposodon gurar sp. nov. from the Pliocene Chinchilla local fauna of Queensland. The morphology of premaxillary and post-cranial remains of T. bowensis described here resemble those of other sthenurine kangaroos. Species of Troposodon were widespread and diverse during the Pliocene in eastern Australia, but declined to extinction during the Pleistocene. At least two species seem to have existed sympatrically at most localities where species of Troposodon occur.