Risk factors for development of diabetes mellitus (Type 3c) after partial pancreatectomy: a systematic review

Linda Wu*, Christopher B. Nahm, Nigel B. Jamieson, Jaswinder Samra, Roderick Clifton-Bligh, Anubhav Mittal, Venessa Tsang

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    34 Citations (Scopus)


    Objectives: Type 3c diabetes mellitus (T3cDM) occurring post pancreatectomy can be challenging to treat due to the frequent combination of decreased circulating levels of insulin and glucagon and concurrent exocrine insufficiency. Relatively, little is known regarding the risk factors for development of T3cDM post pancreatectomy. Our aim was to review the literature and assess what is known of the risk factors for the development of new-onset DM following partial pancreatic resection and where possible determines the incidence, time of onset and the management approach to hyperglycaemia in this context. Design: Medline and Embase databases were reviewed using specific keyword criteria. Original manuscripts published in 1990 or later included. Articles with study population <20, lacking information on new-onset DM, follow-up duration or specifically targeting rare procedures/pathology were excluded. The Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment form was applied. Results reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Pooled effect size calculated using random effects model. Patients: Thirty six articles were identified that described a total of 5636 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, 3922 patients having distal pancreatectomy and 315 with central pancreatectomy. Results: The incidence of new-onset DM was significantly different between different types of resection from 9% to 24% after pancreaticoduodenectomy (pooled estimate 16%; 95% CI: 14%-17%), 3%-40% after distal pancreatectomy (pooled estimate 21%; 95% CI: 16%-25%) and 0%-14% after central pancreatectomy (pooled estimate 6%; 95% CI: 3%-9%). Surgical site, higher preoperative HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose and lower remnant pancreatic volume had strongest associations with new-onset DM. Conclusions: This systematic review supports that risk of development of T3cDM is associated with type of pancreatic resection, lower remnant pancreatic volume and higher preoperative HbA1c.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)396-406
    Number of pages11
    JournalClinical Endocrinology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2020


    • diabetes mellitus
    • pancreatectomy
    • pancreatic insufficiency
    • pancreaticoduodenectomy
    • Whipple's procedure


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