Robust and reversible numerical set watermarking

Gaurav Gupta*, Josef Pieprzyk, Mohan Kankanhalli

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contributionpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Numeric sets can be used to store and distribute important information such as currency exchange rates and stock forecasts. It is useful to watermark such data for proving ownership in case of illegal distribution by someone. This paper analyzes the numerical set watermarking model presented by Sion et. al in "On watermarking numeric sets ", identifies it's weaknesses, and proposes a novel scheme that overcomes these problems. One of the weaknesses of Sion's watermarking scheme is the requirement to have a normally-distributed set, which is not true for many numeric sets such as forecast figures. Experiments indicate that the scheme is also susceptible to subset addition and secondary watermarking attacks. The watermarking model we propose can be used for numeric sets with arbitrary distribution. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the scheme is strongly resilient against sorting, subset selection, subset addition, distortion, and secondary watermarking attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationICETE 2009 - International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications
EditorsPedro A. Amado Assunção, Sérgio M. M Faria
Place of PublicationSetubal
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9789896740078
Publication statusPublished - 2009
EventICETE 2009 - International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications - 2009 - Milan, Italy
Duration: 7 Jul 200910 Jul 2009


OtherICETE 2009 - International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications - 2009


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