Objectives: To study the effect of different orthodontic force levels on cementum, investigating from the point of view of its physical properties, alterations in the mineral components, type and location of the resorption craters and the exploration in 3D of space. Design: In vivo human premolars subjected to heavy and light forces were employed for this study. After a period of movement they were analyzed for hardness and elasticity. Also, the mineral composition measuring Ca, P and F of the cementum root surface was investigated. A new method for volumetric analysis of resorption craters was developed. Results: There were no significant differences for hardness and elastic modulus between the light and heavy force groups and no significant effects for different tooth positions. Significant inter-individual variation in the Ca, P and F concentrations was noted. Force-related data showed that mean volume of the resorption crater in light-force group was 3.49-fold greater than the control group, and the heavy-force group 11.59-fold more than control group. The heavy force group had 3.31-fold greater total resorption volume then light force group. Buccal cervical and lingual apical regions demonstrated significantly more resorption craters than the other regions. The 2D measurements were strongly correlated to 3D measurements. Conclusion: The application of light and heavy forces did not show any statistically significant differences in hardness and elastic modulus when compared with untreated teeth. The inconsistent increase or decrease of Ca, P and F contents between control and experimental teeth at sites of compression and tension were difficult to explain. There was more resorption by volume in the heavy force group as compared with the light group and controls. Our data also suggested that the highpressure zones might be more susceptible to resorption after 28 days of force application.