The Rotator interval (RI) is an anatomic space in the anterosuperior part of the glenohumeral joint. An incompetent or lax RI has been implicated in various conditions of shoulder instability and therefore RI has been frequently touted as an area that is important in preserving stability of the shoulder. Biomechanical studies have shown that repair of RI ligamentous and capsular structures decreases glenohumeral joint laxity in various directions. Clinical studies have reported successful outcomes after repair or plication of these structures in patients undergoing shoulder stabilization procedures. Although varieties of methods have been described for its closure, the optimal surgical technique is unclear with various inconsistencies in incorporation of the closure tissue. This in particular makes the analysis of the RI closure very difficult. The purposes of this study are to review the structures of the RI and their contribution to shoulder instability, to discuss the biomechanical and clinical effects of plication of RI structures in particular to anterior glenohumeral instability, to delineate the differences between an arthroscopic and open RI closure. Additionally, we have proposed a new classification system describing various techniques used during RI closure.
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- Rotator interval (RI)
- Rotator interval plication
- Shoulder instability