Rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, and hallucination-proneness

towards a new model

Simon R. Jones, Charles Fernyhough

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)


Although rumination has been proposed to play an important role in the creation of hallucinations, direct empirical tests of this proposal have not yet been performed. Employing a distinction between ruminative and reflective self-consciousness, we set out to test a new model of the relations among rumination, reflection, intrusive thoughts, thought suppression, social anxiety, and hallucination-proneness. This model proposed that rumination would be related to hallucination-proneness through the mediating variable of intrusive thoughts, but that reflection would not be related to hallucination-proneness. The model was tested in a student population (N = 296) using path analyses. A modified version of the model was found to be a good fit to the data, once a direct path from reflection to hallucination-proneness had been added. As hypothesized, rumination was related to hallucination-proneness only indirectly, through the mediating variable of intrusive thoughts. Implications for interventions and future directions for research are considered.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-59
Number of pages6
JournalBehaviour Research and Therapy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Auditory verbal hallucination
  • Hallucination
  • Schizophrenia
  • Thought suppression
  • Trauma

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