We characterize the late-time scaling state of dry, coarsening, two-dimensional froths using a detailed force-based dynamical model. We find that the slow evolution of bubbles leads to small and decreasing deviations from 120 angles at threefold vertices in the froth, but with a side-number dependence that is independent of time and apparently universal. We also find that a significant number of T1 side-switching processes occur for macroscopic bubbles in the scaling state, though most bubble annihilations involve four-sided bubbles at microscopic scales.
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2006|