Self-efficacy and vicarious learning in doctoral studies at a distance

Olga Kozar*, Juliet F. Lum, Phil Benson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Even though there are increasing numbers of PhD students in the distance mode, our current understanding of PhD candidature at a distance is limited and incomplete. On the one end of the spectrum are accounts of unhappy and isolated doctoral students who are separated from communities of practice. At the same time, literature offers accounts of PhD students at a distance who view themselves as agential and autonomous and are happy not to get sidetracked by others. In this reflection we ask what distinguishes the conventional PhD student from one who is studying at a distance, and invite more research on self-efficacy and vicarious learning of PhD students at a distance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)448-454
Number of pages7
JournalDistance Education
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sept 2015


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