To investigate whether the theory of self-leadership could be applicable in a non-Western context, this study examined the relationship between self-leadership behaviors with supervisor performance rating, objective work performance, and job satisfaction in nine Chinese organizations. In addition, we examined whether job autonomy would influence the relationship between self-leadership behaviors and these work outcomes. We used a sample of 407 supervisor–subordinate dyads from a wide variety of organizations located in the People’s Republic of China and Hong Kong. Results showed a positive relationship between subordinates’ self-leadership behaviors to supervisor performance rating, and to job satisfaction, even when controlling for the personality trait of conscientiousness. However, self-leadership was not significantly related to objective job performance. In addition, job autonomy moderated the relationships between self-leadership behaviors and work outcomes of performance rating, objective work performance, and job satisfaction. These findings suggested that the associations between self-leadership and work outcomes found in Western-based studies could be extended to the Chinese organizational settings included in this study.