Osteoporosis is still a serious concern in most countries and it is increasing with the aging population. Early detection of bone loss is important to successfully manage the disease. Monitoring the bone turnover markers can be helpful in early detection, diagnosis and monitoring bone disorders and deciding on medication and treatment. Different gold standard techniques are available for accurate and reliable measurement of bone remodeling and bone mineral density which indicate the health of bones. However, they are expensive, time-consuming and need expertise. In order to overcome these concerns, newer methods are being developed and it is greatly desirable to design and fabricate bone biosensors which are low-cost, portable and easy to use. This paper gives an overview of the available biochemical markers of bone turnover and focuses on the recent advancements in bone biosensing technologies for monitoring bone biochemical markers as well as the biomechanical assessment of bone.
- Bone mineral density