C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) increase in the blood of patients with inflammatory conditions and CRP-induced monocyte tissue factor (TF) may contribute to inflammation-associated thrombosis. This study demonstrates that SAA is a potent and rapid inducer of human monocyte TF. SAA induced TF mRNA in PBMC within 30 min and optimal procoagulant activity within 4 h, whereas CRP (25 μg/ml)-induced activity was minimal at this time. Unlike CRP, SAA did not synergize with LPS. Procoagulant activity was inhibited by anti-TF and was dependent on factors VII and X, and TF Ag levels were elevated on CB14+ monocytes. Responses were optimal with lymphocytes, although these were not obligatory. Inhibitor studies indicate activation of NF-κB through the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways; the cyclo-oxygenase pathway was not involved. SAA-induced TF was partially inhibited by high-density lipoprotein, but not by low-density lipoprotein or by apolipoprotein A-I. SAA is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and TF generation was suppressed by ∼50% by a RAGE competitor, soluble RAGE, and by ∼85% by anti-RAGE IgG. However, another RAGE ligand, high mobility group box-1 protein, capable of inducing monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA in 2 h, did not induce TF within 24 h. Cross-linking studies confirmed SAA binding to soluble RAGE. Elevated SAA is a marker of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and PBMC from patients with rheumatoid arthritis were more sensitive to SAA than normals, suggesting a new link between inflammation and thrombosis.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2007|