Protein microarrays are platforms for studying protein-protein interactions and identifying disease-related self-antigens/autoantigens, which elicit an immune response in a high-throughput format. Protein arrays have been extensively used over the past two decades for several clinical applications. By using this platform, serum containing autoantibodies against potential self-antigens can be screened on proteome-wide arrays, harboring a large repertoire of full-length human proteins. Identification of such autoantigens can help deducing early diagnostic, as well as, prognostic markers in case of malignancies, autoimmune disorders, and other systemic diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the protein microarray technology along with details of an established method to study autoantibody profiles from patient sera.