The global burden of dengue continues to worsen, specifically in tropical and subtropical countries, and has evolved as a major public health problem. We investigated the changes in serum proteome in dengue fever (DF) patients from a dengue-endemic area of India to obtain mechanistic insights about the disease pathogenesis, the host immune response, and identification of potential serum protein biomarkers of this infectious disease. In this study, serum samples from DF patients, healthy subjects, and patients with falciparum malaria (an infectious disease control) were investigated by 2D-DIGE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The findings were validated with Western blotting. Functional clustering of the identified proteins was performed using PANTHER and DAVID tools. Compared to the healthy controls, we found significant changes in the expression levels of 48 protein spots corresponding to 18 unique proteins (7 downregulated and 11 upregulated) in DF patients (p<0.05). Among these differentially-expressed proteins, 11 candidates exhibited different trends in dengue fever compared to falciparum malaria. Importantly, our results suggest that dengue virus infection leads to alterations in expression levels of multiple serum proteins involved in diverse and vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, complement cascades, hemostasis, and blood coagulation. For the first time we report here that the serum levels of hemopexin, haptoglobin, serum amyloid P, and kininogen precursor, are altered in DF. This study informs the pathogenesis and host immune response to dengue virus infection, as well as the current search for new diagnostic and molecular drug targets.