Silicon nanotexture surface area mapping using ultraviolet reflectance

Giuseppe Scardera, David Payne, Muhammad Umair Khan, Yu Zhang, Anastasia Soeriyadi, Shuai Zou, Daqi Zhang, Rasmus Schmidt Davidsen, Ole Hansen, Bram Hoex, Malcolm David Abbott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


The enhanced surface area of silicon nanotexture is an important metric for solar cell integration as it affects multiple properties including optical reflectance, dopant diffusion, and surface recombination. Silicon nanotexture is typically characterized by its surface-area-to-projected-area ratio or enhanced area factor (EAF). However, traditional approaches for measuring EAF provide limited statistics, making correlation studies difficult. In this article, silicon's dominant ultraviolet reflectance peak, R(E2), which is very sensitive to surface etching, is applied to EAF spatial mapping. A clear decay correlation between R(E2) and EAF is shown for multiple textures created using reactive ion etching and metal catalyzed chemical etching. This correlation is applied to R(280 nm) reflectance mapping to yield accurate, high-resolution full-wafer EAF spatial mapping of silicon nanotextures. R(280 nm) mapping is also shown to be sensitive enough to correlate the impact of nanotexture spatial variation on post-diffusion sheet resistance. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of several nanoscale pyramid textures confirm a decay band for R(E2) versus EAF, consistent with our measurements. We suggest that R(E2) mapping may prove useful for other silicon nanotexture properties and applications where EAF is important.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1291-1298
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021

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