Singer and listener perception of vocal warm-up

Lynda Moorcroft, Dianna T. Kenny*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)


    Objectives: This study investigated changes perceived by singers and listeners after the singers had vocally warmed up. Study Design: The study used a repeated measures within-subject design to assess changes in vibrato quality from pre (nonwarmed-up voice) to post (warmed-up voice) test. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess singers' self-ratings pre- and posttest and intra- and interlistener rater reliability. Methods: Twelve classically trained female singers recorded and self-rated their performance of an eight bar solo before and after 25 minutes of vocal warm-up exercises. Six experienced listeners assessed the vocal samples for pre- to posttest differences in tone quality and for each singer's warm-up condition. Perceptual judgements were also compared with pre- to posttest changes in vibrato. Results: All singers perceived significant changes in tone quality, psychophysiological factors, proprioceptive feedback and technical command. Significant pre- to posttest differences in tone quality and correct appraisal of the singer's warm-up condition from most of the listeners were only observed for singers who moderated extremely fast or extremely slow vibrato after warming up. Conclusions: The findings reveal the divide between listeners' and singers' perceptions of the warmed-up voice and highlight the importance of enhanced vibrato quality to listener perception of an improvement in vocal quality.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)258.e1–258.e13
    Number of pages13
    JournalJournal of Voice
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2013


    • Perception
    • Tone quality
    • Vibrato
    • Vocal warm-up


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