Six year experience of external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy boost with a 1Ci 192Ir source, and neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation for prostate cancer

Michael A. Izard*, Richard L. Haddad, Gerald B. Fogarty, Adrian Rinks, Timothy Dobbins, Philip Katelaris

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To present preliminary outcomes of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy (PDR-BT), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and hormonal manipulation, for prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: Between December 1999 and January 2005, 165 consecutive patients with Stage T1-T3, N0, M0 prostate cancer were treated. Hormones were used in every patient. Median follow-up was 36 months. Risk groups were low (either Stage ≤T2a, ± Gleason score ≤6, ± Prostate-Specific Antigen [PSA] level ≤10 ng/mL); intermediate (either Stage T2b,c, ± Gleason score 7, ± PSA 10-20 ng/mL); and high (either Stage T3, ± Gleason score 8-10, ± PSA >20 ng/mL). Results: At 3 years, Radiotherapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Grade 3 and 4 genito-urinary toxicity was 4% and 1.4%; RTOG Grade 3 and 4 gastro-intestinal toxicity was 2.6% and 0%, respectively. Erectile preservation was 61%. Overall survival was 93% (154 of 165) and cause-specific survival was 98% (162 of 165). At 3 years, disease free survival (DFS) was 93% (153 of 165). DFS for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups was 100%, 97%, and 81%, respectively (χ2 (2) = 16.02, p = 0.0003). The nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition (χ2 (2) = 14.49, p = 0.0007) best predicted clinical failure, having the lowest false-positive rate (3 of 165). The nadir plus 2 ng/mL PSA-progression-free survival (PSA-PFS) rate was 100%, 95%, and 87% for the low-, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Overall ASTRO PSA-PFS rate was 88%. Conclusions: Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy plus EBRT is effective in treating localized prostate cancer, with acceptable toxicity. However, a median 5-year PSA-PFS follow-up is required before providing a solid recommendation. This preliminary information supports continued use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-47
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • brachytherapy
  • external beam radiotherapy
  • Iridium-192
  • PDR
  • Prostate cancer

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