This study examines the effect of fear intensity and type of fear on smokers' recall of fear-based graphic stimuli. A 2 × 2 factorial design manipulates fear intensity (high vs. low) and fear type (physical vs. social). Results show high intensity messages promote superior recall, with recall heightening when the message also depicts physical harm. This study also shows that viewing time moderates the interaction effect of fear intensity and fear type on recall. Findings demonstrate that smokers report greater recall when exposed to highly intense messages that depict physical harm, with the effect only significant when viewing time is low. We argue that high intensity physical harm messages encourage greater message recall when viewed for only a short period due to shock arousal.
- physical harm
- social harm