SN 1999ga: A low-luminosity linear type II supernova?

A. Pastorello*, R. M. Crockett, R. Martin, S. J. Smartt, G. Altavilla, S. Benetti, M. T. Botticella, E. Cappellaro, S. Mattila, J. R. Maund, S. D. Ryder, M. Salvo, S. Taubenberger, M. Turatto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Context. Type II-linear supernovae are thought to arise from progenitors that have lost most of their H envelope by the time of the explosion, and they are poorly understood because they are only occasionally discovered. It is possible that they are intrinsically rare, but selection effects due to their rapid luminosity evolution may also play an important role in limiting the number of detections. In this context, the discovery of a subluminous type II-linear event is even more interesting.

Aims. We investigate the physical properties and characterise the explosion site of the type II SN 1999ga, which exploded in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2442.

Methods. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of SN 1999ga allow us to constrain the energetics of the explosion and to estimate the mass of the ejected material, shedding light on the nature of the progenitor star in the final stages of its life. The study of the environment in the vicinity of the explosion site provides information on a possible relation between these unusual supernovae and the properties of the galaxies hosting them.

Results. Despite the lack of early-time observations, we provide reasonable evidence that SN 1999ga was probably a type II-linear supernova that ejected a few solar masses of material, with a very small amount of radioactive elements of the order of 0.01M⊙.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1013-1023
Number of pages11
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Stars: supernovae: general
  • Stars: supernovae: individual: SN 1979C
  • Stars: supernovae: individual: SN 1980K
  • stars: supernovae: individual: SN 1990K
  • Stars: supernovae: individual: SN 1999ga


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