Some comments on the GRAS method

Manfred Lenzen*, Richard Wood, Blanca Gallego

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


Junius and Oosterhaven (2003) present a RAS matrix balancing variant that can incorporate negative elements in the balancing. There are, however, a couple of issues in the approach described - the first being the handling of zeros in the initial estimate, and the second being the formulation of their minimum-information principle. We present a corrected exposition of GRAS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-465
Number of pages5
JournalEconomic Systems Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • GRAS
  • Optimisation
  • RAS matrix balancing


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