Specifying weak constraints in Processable English

Rolf Schwitter*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference proceeding contributionpeer-review


Processable English (PENG) is a controlled natural language designed to specify and conceptualize knowledge in a human-readable and machine-processable way. PENG specifications can be translated unambiguously into executable answer set programs (ASP). In this paper we suggest an extension of the language PENGASP so that weak constraints can be expressed in controlled natural language and processed as part of an ASP program. In contrast to strong constraints that have always to be satisfied and are already part of the controlled natural language, we introduce weak constraints that can be weighted and prioritised and should be satisfied whenever possible. The addition of weak constraints to the controlled natural language PENGASP makes it possible to specify optimisation problems in a natural way.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the Australasian Computer Science Week Multiconference, ACSW 2019
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781450366038
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jan 2019
Event2019 Australasian Computer Science Week Multiconference - Sydney, Australia
Duration: 29 Jan 201931 Jan 2019


Conference2019 Australasian Computer Science Week Multiconference
Abbreviated titleACSW 2019


  • answer set programming
  • Controlled languages
  • specifications


Dive into the research topics of 'Specifying weak constraints in Processable English'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this