Sr evolution in the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic carbonates, northeast Sichuan basin, China

constraints from chemistry, isotope and fluid inclusions

Kaikai Li, Chunfang Cai*, Lei Jiang, Liulu Cai, Lianqi Jia, Bing Zhang, Lei Xiang, Yuyang Yuan

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    21 Citations (Scopus)


    Petrographic features, C, O and Sr isotopes, rare earth and trace elements were determined, and fluid inclusions were analyzed on various stages of interparticle cements and vug-fillings from the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic sour reservoirs in northeastern Sichuan basin. The aim was to assess the origin and evolution of palaeo-waters in the carbonates. The original water was contemporary seawater, from which marine cements precipitated with slightly high Sr contents (mean 1911ppm), 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios from 0.7067 to 0.7082 and nonluminescent CL. The palaeo-seawater was diluted by meteoric water, as indicated by bright cathodoluminescence (CL) and Sr-depletion (0-516ppm) in low-temperature calcite. When buried to temperatures of about 60-90°C during Middle to Late Triassic, the palaeo-water was enriched in Sr released from the transformation of precursor aragonite and calcite to dolomite, resulting in precipitation of substantial pre-bitumen Sr-rich minerals (SrSO 4 and SrCO 3). For un-dolomitized limestone sections, aragonite neomorphism may have contributed Sr to the precipitation of small amounts of Sr-bearing minerals and calcite crystals with elevated homogenization temperatures (HTs, mainly from 90 to 130°C) and wide Sr contents (from 34 to 3825ppm), as recorded in stage III calcite. Since the Middle Jurassic, almost all of the early stage celestite and significant amounts of solid CaSO 4 have been consumed by reactions with hydrocarbons (i.e., TSR), resulting in water enriched in isotopically light CO 2 and HCO3-,Sr2+,Ba2+ and Eu 2+, as recorded in calcite with low δ 13C values (down to -18.9‰), 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios from 0.7072 to 0.7076, high HTs (mainly 110-198°C), positive Eu anomalies and high Sr and Ba contents. Subsequently, the water was uplifted and cooled down to about 115°C, celestite and strontianite were precipitated with the occurrence of natural elemental S immiscible inclusions. TSR may have produced significant amounts of freshwater, which brought down Sr concentrations and salinities of the palaeo-waters to not more than about 6.0wt.% NaCl equivalent.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2409-2424
    Number of pages16
    JournalApplied Geochemistry
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012

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