Stability of deficits in reading fluency and/or spelling

Kristina Moll*, Melanie Gangl, Chiara Banfi, Gerd Schulte-Korne, Karin Landerl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
31 Downloads (Pure)


Deficits in reading fluency and in spelling can dissociate during development, resulting in groups with reading deficit only (RD), spelling deficit only (SD) and combined reading and spelling deficit (RSD). The current study investigated the one-to-two-year longitudinal stability of these subgroups in 167 German-speaking children. Reading fluency deficits (irrespective of spelling skills) were stable over time, while spelling deficits were stable in the RSD-group but not in the SD-group. Lower stability in the SD-group resulted from the fact that many children improved their spelling skills over time. Improvement in spelling was associated with good performance in phoneme awareness together with intact RAN and decoding skills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-251
Number of pages11
JournalScientific Studies of Reading
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2020

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


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