Standards in literacy and numeracy: Contributing factors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The establishment of international testing regimes such as the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has provided one way for individual countries to monitor the effectiveness of their educational systems. In addition, student achievement may be compared with that of students from other participating countries. Studying the educational organisation of those countries and economies in which high-ranking results in international testing have been produced, including the roles played by teachers, students, and systems, provides valuable information for use in countries where there is a desire for improved student performance. In combination with the research literature, the main findings from such an investigation suggest that it is teachers who make the difference, and that it is the responsibility of governments and teacher training institutions to select and prepare teachers accordingly.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7
Pages (from-to)106-139
Number of pages34
JournalAustralian Journal of Teacher Education
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014


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