Strategies to enhance drug absorption via nasal and pulmonary routes

Maliheh Ghadiri, Paul M. Young, Daniela Traini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

129 Citations (Scopus)
220 Downloads (Pure)


New therapeutic agents such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acid-based agents are being developed every year, making it vital to find a non-invasive route such as nasal or pulmonary for their administration. However, a major concern for some of these newly developed therapeutic agents is their poor absorption. Therefore, absorption enhancers have been investigated to address this major administration problem. This paper describes the basic concepts of transmucosal administration of drugs, and in particular the use of the pulmonary or nasal routes for administration of drugs with poor absorption. Strategies for the exploitation of absorption enhancers for the improvement of pulmonary or nasal administration are discussed, including use of surfactants, cyclodextrins, protease inhibitors, and tight junction modulators, as well as application of carriers such as liposomes and nanoparticles.
Original languageEnglish
Article number113
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2019
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2019. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.


  • nasal
  • pulmonary
  • drug administration
  • absorption enhancers
  • nanoparticle
  • liposome


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