Strong seasonality of Bonamia sp. infection and induced Crassostrea ariakensis mortality in Bogue and Masonboro Sounds, North Carolina, USA

Ryan B. Carnegie*, Nancy A. Stokes, Corinne Audemard, Melanie J. Bishop, Ami E. Wilbur, Troy D. Alphin, Martin H. Posey, Charles H. Peterson, Eugene M. Burreson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)


Asian oyster Crassostrea ariakensis is being considered for introduction to Atlantic coastal waters of the USA. Successful aquaculture of this species will depend partly on mitigating impacts by Bonamia sp., a parasite that has caused high C. ariakensis mortality south of Virginia. To better understand the biology of this parasite and identify strategies for management, we evaluated its seasonal pattern of infection in C. ariakensis at two North Carolina, USA, locations in 2005. Small (<50 mm) triploid C. ariakensis were deployed to upwellers on Bogue Sound in late spring (May), summer (July), early fall (September), late fall (November), and early winter (December) 2005; and two field sites on Masonboro Sound in September 2005. Oyster growth and mortality were evaluated biweekly at Bogue Sound, and weekly at Masonboro, with Bonamia sp. prevalence evaluated using parasite-specific PCR. We used histology to confirm infections in PCR-positive oysters. Bonamia sp. appeared in the late spring Bogue Sound deployment when temperatures approached 25 °C, six weeks post-deployment. Summer- and early fall-deployed oysters displayed Bonamia sp. infections after 3-4 weeks. Bonamia sp. prevalences were ≥75% in Bogue Sound, and 60% in Masonboro. While oyster mortality reached 100% in late spring and summer deployments, early fall deployments showed reduced (17-82%) mortality. Late fall and early winter deployments, made at temperatures <20 °C, developed no Bonamia sp. infections at all. Seasonal Bonamia sp. cycling, therefore, is influenced greatly by temperature. Avoiding peak seasonal Bonamia sp. activity will be essential for culturing C. ariakensis in Bonamia sp.-enzootic waters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-343
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Invertebrate Pathology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2008
Externally publishedYes


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