Structural and functional markers of optic nerve damage in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated optic neuritis

Stephanie Barnes*, Yuyi You, Ting Shen, Todd A. Hardy, Clare Fraser, Stephen W. Reddel, Fabienne Brilot, Sudarshini Ramanathan, Alexandr Klistorner, Con Yiannikas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: Optic neuritis (ON) occurs in immune-mediated disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), aquaporin-4 antibody-positive (AQP4) neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (AQP4-NMOSD) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated demyelination (MOGAD). Accurate determination of aetiology is critical for appropriate treatment and prognostication. Objective: To evaluate demyelination and axonal loss in MOG-ON to facilitate differentiation from MS-ON and AQP4-ON. Methods: 15 MOGAD patients with previous ON (25 eyes) underwent multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) recordings and optical coherence tomography scans. Comparison was made to previously reported MS patients (n = 67, 69 eyes) and AQP4-NMOSD patients (n = 15, 23 eyes) with prior ON and healthy controls (n = 37, 74 eyes). Results: MOG-ON patients had less retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) loss than AQP4-ON patients (p < 0.05) and less mfVEP latency prolongation than MS-ON patients (p < 0.01). Number of ON episodes in MOGAD was associated with reduced RNFL thickness (global, p = 0.07; temporal, p < 0.001) and mfVEP amplitude (p < 0.001). There was no abnormality in non-ON eyes. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a distinct pattern of damage in MOG-ON compared to AQP4-ON and MS-ON. ON in MOGAD produces less axonal loss than AQP4-NMOSD. Damage accumulates with relapses, supporting the role of maintenance immunosuppression to induce remission. Compared to MS, MOGAD causes less demyelination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalMultiple Sclerosis Journal - Experimental, Translational and Clinical
Volume7
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright the Author(s) 2021. Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.

Keywords

  • myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies
  • optic neuritis
  • optical coherence tomography
  • visual evoked potential

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