Substance P terminals have previously been demonstrated around retrogradely labelled posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) motoneurons, but little is known regarding substance P inputs to other functionally identified laryngeal motoneurons. In the present study, we determined the number and distribution of close appositions between substance P immunoreactive boutons and three types of laryngeal motoneuron by using a combination of intracellular recording, dye-filling and immunocytochemistry in the rat. Cricothyroid (CT) motoneurons received 15±5 substance P appositions/neuron (mean±S.D., n=6), PCA motoneurons received 13±5 (n=6), and laryngeal constrictor (LCS) motoneurons received 11±4 (n=5). In contrast to our previous finding of a preferential serotonin innervation of CT motoneurons, we found no significant difference between the substance P inputs to CT, PCA and LCS motoneurons. Our results indicate a modest role for substance P in control of laryngeal motoneuronal function.