Background: Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) has been shown to improve long-term survival outcomes in selected patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). The present study aimed to evaluate potential prognostic factors on overall survival for patients who underwent EPP for MPM and to examine the patient selection process in major referral centers that perform EPP. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was performed using 5 electronic databases. Relevant studies with prognostic data on overall survival for patients with MPM treated by EPP were included for review. Two reviewers independently assessed each included study. Results: A total of 17 studies from 13 institutions containing the most updated and complete data on prognostic factors for patients with MPM who underwent EPP were included for review. A number of quantitative, clinical, and treatment-related factors were identified to have significant impact on overall survival. Conclusions: Patients with nonepithelial MPM and nodal involvement have consistently demonstrated to have a worse prognosis after EPP. Their eligibility as candidates for EPP should be questioned. The preoperative patient selection process currently differs greatly between institutions and should focus on identifying patients with nonepithelial histologic subtypes and nodal involvement to exclude them as EPP surgical candidates in the future.