The redox-induced conformational equilibrium of cytochrome c (cyt c) adsorbed on DNA-modified metal electrode and the interaction mechanism of DNA with cyt c have been studied by electrochemical, spectroscopic and spectroelectrochemical techniques. The results indicate that the external electric field induces potential-dependent coordination equilibrium of the adsorbed cyt c between its oxidized state (with native six-coordinate low-spin and non-native five-coordinate high-spin heme configuration) and its reduced state (with native six-coordinate low-spin heme configuration) on DNA-modified metal electrode. The strong interactions between DNA and cyt c induce the self-aggregation of cyt c adsorbed on DNA. The orientational distribution of cyt c adsorbed on DNA-modified metal electrode is potential-dependent, which results in the deviation from an ideal Nernstian behavior of the adsorbed cyt c at high electrode potentials. The electric-field-induced increase in the activation barrier of proton-transfer steps attributed to the rearrangement of the hydrogen bond network and the self-aggregation of cyt c upon adsorption on DNA-modified electrode strongly decrease the interfacial electron transfer rate. In addition, the strongly Coulombic interactions between DNA and cyt c only disturb the microenvironment of the heme, and do not affect the states of heme ligation and spin. The secondary structure of the adsorbed cyt c is retained, while the conformation of DNA is changed from the B form DNA to A form DNA.
- Conformational change of cytochrome c
- DNA-modified electrode
- Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy