Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project–the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project–is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future holds is the de novo production of the raspberry ketone aroma compound, 4-[4-hydroxyphenyl]butan-2-one, in a wine yeast strain (AWRI1631), which was recently achieved via metabolic pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion. A peek over the horizon is revealing that the future of “Wine Yeast 2.0” is already here. Therefore, this article seeks to help prepare the wine industry–an industry rich in history and tradition on the one hand, and innovation on the other–for the inevitable intersection of the ancient art practiced by winemakers and the inventive science of pioneering “synthetic genomicists”. It would be prudent to proactively engage all stakeholders–researchers, industry practitioners, policymakers, regulators, commentators, and consumers–in a meaningful dialog about the potential challenges and opportunities emanating from Synthetic Biology. To capitalize on the new vistas of synthetic yeast genomics, this paper presents wine yeast research in a fresh context, raises important questions and proposes new directions.

LanguageEnglish
Pages112-136
Number of pages25
JournalCritical Reviews in Biotechnology
Volume37
Issue number1
Early online date18 Aug 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2017

Fingerprint

Wine
Yeasts
Genome
Synthetic Biology
Industry
Gene Regulatory Networks
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Mycoplasma mycoides
Stevia
Mycoplasma genitalium
Metabolic Engineering
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12
Saccharomycetales
Poliovirus
DNA
Biosynthetic Pathways
Antimalarials
Eukaryotic Cells
Art

Keywords

  • Bioengineering
  • CRISPR technology
  • genome editing
  • genome scrambling
  • genome synthesis
  • Synthetic Biology
  • synthetic chromosomes
  • synthetic genomics
  • Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project
  • Yeast 2.0

Cite this

@article{fe2ed5d764984323be721f1af8bc9225,
title = "Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast",
abstract = "Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project–the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project–is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future holds is the de novo production of the raspberry ketone aroma compound, 4-[4-hydroxyphenyl]butan-2-one, in a wine yeast strain (AWRI1631), which was recently achieved via metabolic pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion. A peek over the horizon is revealing that the future of “Wine Yeast 2.0” is already here. Therefore, this article seeks to help prepare the wine industry–an industry rich in history and tradition on the one hand, and innovation on the other–for the inevitable intersection of the ancient art practiced by winemakers and the inventive science of pioneering “synthetic genomicists”. It would be prudent to proactively engage all stakeholders–researchers, industry practitioners, policymakers, regulators, commentators, and consumers–in a meaningful dialog about the potential challenges and opportunities emanating from Synthetic Biology. To capitalize on the new vistas of synthetic yeast genomics, this paper presents wine yeast research in a fresh context, raises important questions and proposes new directions.",
keywords = "Bioengineering, CRISPR technology, genome editing, genome scrambling, genome synthesis, Synthetic Biology, synthetic chromosomes, synthetic genomics, Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project, Yeast 2.0",
author = "Pretorius, {Isak S.}",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1080/07388551.2016.1214945",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "112--136",
journal = "Critical Reviews in Biotechnology",
issn = "0738-8551",
publisher = "Taylor & Francis",
number = "1",

}

Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast. / Pretorius, Isak S.

In: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, Vol. 37, No. 1, 02.01.2017, p. 112-136.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast

AU - Pretorius, Isak S.

PY - 2017/1/2

Y1 - 2017/1/2

N2 - Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project–the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project–is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future holds is the de novo production of the raspberry ketone aroma compound, 4-[4-hydroxyphenyl]butan-2-one, in a wine yeast strain (AWRI1631), which was recently achieved via metabolic pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion. A peek over the horizon is revealing that the future of “Wine Yeast 2.0” is already here. Therefore, this article seeks to help prepare the wine industry–an industry rich in history and tradition on the one hand, and innovation on the other–for the inevitable intersection of the ancient art practiced by winemakers and the inventive science of pioneering “synthetic genomicists”. It would be prudent to proactively engage all stakeholders–researchers, industry practitioners, policymakers, regulators, commentators, and consumers–in a meaningful dialog about the potential challenges and opportunities emanating from Synthetic Biology. To capitalize on the new vistas of synthetic yeast genomics, this paper presents wine yeast research in a fresh context, raises important questions and proposes new directions.

AB - Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project–the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project–is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future holds is the de novo production of the raspberry ketone aroma compound, 4-[4-hydroxyphenyl]butan-2-one, in a wine yeast strain (AWRI1631), which was recently achieved via metabolic pathway engineering and synthetic enzyme fusion. A peek over the horizon is revealing that the future of “Wine Yeast 2.0” is already here. Therefore, this article seeks to help prepare the wine industry–an industry rich in history and tradition on the one hand, and innovation on the other–for the inevitable intersection of the ancient art practiced by winemakers and the inventive science of pioneering “synthetic genomicists”. It would be prudent to proactively engage all stakeholders–researchers, industry practitioners, policymakers, regulators, commentators, and consumers–in a meaningful dialog about the potential challenges and opportunities emanating from Synthetic Biology. To capitalize on the new vistas of synthetic yeast genomics, this paper presents wine yeast research in a fresh context, raises important questions and proposes new directions.

KW - Bioengineering

KW - CRISPR technology

KW - genome editing

KW - genome scrambling

KW - genome synthesis

KW - Synthetic Biology

KW - synthetic chromosomes

KW - synthetic genomics

KW - Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project

KW - Yeast 2.0

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84982306240&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/07388551.2016.1214945

DO - 10.1080/07388551.2016.1214945

M3 - Review article

VL - 37

SP - 112

EP - 136

JO - Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

T2 - Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

JF - Critical Reviews in Biotechnology

SN - 0738-8551

IS - 1

ER -