The concentration in plasma of the female protein (FP) of the golden Syrian hamster is regulated by sex steroids and by mediators of the acute-phase response to tissue injury or inflammation. A complementary DNA (cDNA) clone corresponding to FP was isolated from a hamster liver cDNA library and used to determine the nucleotide sequence and derived amino acid sequence of native FP. The primary sequence of FP is 69 percent identical to human serum amyloid P component and 50 percent identical to human C-reactive protein. Evidence showed that sex-limited and acute-phase control of the FP gene is pretranslational. The FP protein is thus a useful model for investigating dual regulation of expression of a single gene.