Aims: Upper gastrointestinal Crohn's disease (UGI-CD) is an important subclassification of Crohn's Disease (CD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes associated with UGI-CD. Methods: We searched Embase and Medline for articles reporting the clinical information of UGI-CD in CD patients, through 27 October 2020. Disease location and phenotype were coded according to the Montreal classification, and results were pooled with random effects by DerSimonian and Laird model. Results: 26 articles were included. The prevalence of UGI-CD was 13%. UGI-CD was most commonly found in the stomach (56%) and was associated with concurrent ileocolonic involvement (54%). Non-stricturing, non-penetrating UGI-CD was the most common behavioral phenotype (61%). L4-jejunal disease was associated with the highest rates of surgery. Region of origin did not significantly influence the location and phenotype of UGI-CD. Young, male patients presenting with erythema nodosum, aphthous ulcers and stricturing-phenotype are more likely to have UGI-CD, which in turn is linked to increased risk of hospitalization and surgery. Conclusion: UGI-CD is present in 13% of patients with CD, and patients with L4-jejunal disease are more likely to require surgery. Further studies examining the effect of ethnicity and region on UGI-CD are needed.
- Crohn's disease
- Montreal classification
- Upper gastrointestinal Crohn's disease