Aims: There is increasing evidence that left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology on the electrocardiogram is a positive predictor for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We previously demonstrated that the vectorcardiography (VCG)-derived T-wave area predicts echocardiographic CRT response in LBBB patients. In the present study, we investigate whether the T-wave area also predicts long-term clinical outcome to CRT.
Methods and results: This is a retrospective study consisting of 335 CRT recipients. Primary endpoint were the composite of heart failure (HF) hospitalization, heart transplantation, left ventricular assist device implantation or death during a 3-year follow-up period. HF hospitalization and death alone were secondary endpoints. The patient subgroup with a large T-wave area and LBBB 36% reached the primary endpoint, which was considerably less (P <0.01) than for patients with LBBB and a small T-wave area or non-LBBB patients with a small or large T-wave area (48, 57, and 51%, respectively). Similar differences were observed for the secondary endpoints, HF hospitalization (31 vs. 51, 51, and 38%, respectively, P <0.01) and death (19 vs. 42, 34, and 42%, respectively, P <0.01). In multivariate analysis, a large T-wave area and LBBB were the only independent predictors of the combined endpoint besides high creatinine levels and use of diuretics.
Conclusion: T-wave area may be useful as an additional biomarker to stratify CRT candidates and improve selection of those most likely to benefit from CRT. A large T-wave area may derive its predictive value from reflecting good intrinsic myocardial properties and a substrate for CRT.
- Cardiac resynchronization therapy
- Long-term clinical outcome
- Left bundle branch block
- T wave area