Tandem duplication, circular permutation, molecular adaptation: how Solanaceae resist pests via inhibitors

Lesheng Kong, Shoba Ranganathan*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    25 Citations (Scopus)
    14 Downloads (Pure)


    Background: The Potato type II (Pot II) family of proteinase inhibitors plays critical roles in the defense system of plants from Solanaceae family against pests. To better understand the evolution of this family, we investigated the correlation between sequence and structural repeats within this family and the evolution and molecular adaptation of Pot II genes through computational analysis, using the putative ancestral domain sequence as the basic repeat unit. Results: Our analysis discovered the following interesting findings in Pot II family. (1) We classified the structural domains in Pot II family into three types (original repeat domain, circularly permuted domain, the two-chain domain) according to the existence of two linkers between the two domain components, which clearly show the circular permutation relationship between the original repeat domain and circularly permuted domain. (2) The permuted domains appear more stable than original repeat domain, from available structural information. Therefore, we proposed a multiple-repeat sequence is likely to adopt the permuted domain from contiguous sequence segments, with the N- and C-termini forming a single non-contiguous structural domain, linking the bracelet of tandem repeats. (3) The analysis of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution rates ratio in Pot II domain revealed heterogeneous selective pressures among amino acid sites: the reactive site is under positive Darwinian selection (providing different specificity to target varieties of proteinases) while the cysteine scaffold is under purifying selection (essential for maintaining the fold). (4) For multi-repeat Pot II genes from Nicotiana genus, the proteolytic processing site is under positive Darwinian selection (which may improve the cleavage efficiency). Conclusion: This paper provides comprehensive analysis and characterization of Pot II family, and enlightens our understanding on the strategies (Gene and domain duplication, structural circular permutation and molecular adaptation) of Solanaceae plants for defending pathogenic attacks through the evolution of Pot II genes.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article numberS22
    Pages (from-to)1-15
    Number of pages15
    JournalBMC Bioinformatics
    Issue numberSUPPL. 1
    Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2008

    Bibliographical note

    Copyright 2008 Kong and Ranganathan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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