Tensor network states and algorithms in the presence of a global U(1) symmetry

Sukhwinder Singh*, Robert N C Pfeifer, Guifre Vidal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

158 Citations (Scopus)


Tensor network decompositions offer an efficient description of certain many-body states of a lattice system and are the basis of a wealth of numerical simulation algorithms. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/ PhysRevA.82.050301 82, 050301 (2010)] we discussed how to incorporate a global internal symmetry, given by a compact, completely reducible group G, into tensor network decompositions and algorithms. Here we specialize to the case of Abelian groups and, for concreteness, to a U(1) symmetry, associated, e.g., with particle number conservation. We consider tensor networks made of tensors that are invariant (or covariant) under the symmetry, and explain how to decompose and manipulate such tensors in order to exploit their symmetry. In numerical calculations, the use of U(1)-symmetric tensors allows selection of a specific number of particles, ensures the exact preservation of particle number, and significantly reduces computational costs. We illustrate all these points in the context of the multiscale entanglement renormalization Ansatz.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115125
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalPhysical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


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