The accessibility, quality, and administration of childcare services for birth to 3 years under China's universal two-child policy

Xiumin Hong, Qianqian Liu, Mingzhu Zhang*, Hui Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Research Findings: Driven by the universal two-child policy, the childcare services in China have stepped into a new era after 3-decade of neglect. This national study investigated the accessibility, quality, and administration of childcare services for children under age 3, by establishing a triangulation of survey, interview, and classroom observation. Altogether 28,582 parents and 2,340 teachers were surveyed, 114 classrooms were observed, and 107 service managers were interviewed. The results indicated both signs of progress and problems under the universal two-child policy. The major findings include: (1) although in high demand, childcare services are still scarce; (2) the structure quality and process quality are not high; and (3) a scientific administration should be established to regulate the services, which also need to be standardized. Practice or Policy: The findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of Chinese childcare services and provide implications for policymaking and practical improvement.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages15
JournalEarly Education and Development
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Jun 2021

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