Background: Blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor has been demonstrated to ameliorate splanchnic hypoperfusion in acute experimental circulatory failure. This study focused on hemodynamic changes and survival in pigs treated with AT1 blockade prior to or during acute endotoxinemia. Methods: Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide endotoxin was infused in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. Systemic, renal, mesenteric and jejunal mucosal perfusion as well as systemic oxygen and acid-base balance were monitored. The selective AT1 receptor blocker candesartan was administered prior to as well as during endotoxinemia. Control animals received the saline vehicle. Results: Pre-treatment with candesartan resulted in higher survival rate (83%, 10 out of 12 animals) compared with 50% (6 of 12) in control animals and 27% (3 of 11) in animals treated during endotoxinemia. Pre-treatment with candesartan resulted in higher cardiac output, mixed venous oxygen saturation, arterial standard base-excess, portal venous blood flow during endotoxin infusion compared with controls and animals treated during endotoxinemia. No adverse effects were found on neither systemic nor renal circulation. Conclusion: The favorable results of AT1 receptor blockade prior to endotoxinemia are lost when blockade is established during endotoxinemia demonstrating the importance of the renin-angiotensin system and its dynamic involvement in acute endotoxinemic shock.
- Renin-angiotensin system