Purpose.: We aimed to establish whether the change in retinal microvascular structure observed cross-sectionally with axial elongation and larger corneal curvature is comparable from early childhood to adolescence. Methods.: In all, 1077 Sydney Paediatric Eye Study participants (36 to <72 months of age) and 1740, 2353, and 1216 from the Sydney Childhood Eye Study (6, 12, and 17 years of age), respectively, were examined. Quantifiable retinal vascular caliber measurements were obtained using validated computer-based methods. Ocular biometry measurements were performed according to standardized protocols. Results.: After multivariable adjustment, in children 36 to <72 months of age, each 1.0-mm increase in axial length was associated with a 3.67- and 6.53-μm narrowing of mean retinal arteriolar caliber (P = 0.005) and venular caliber (P < 0.0001), respectively. Each 1.0-mm increase in axial length in children 6, 12, and 17 years of age was associated with a 5.30-, 3.96-, and 4.03-μm decrease in mean retinal arteriolar caliber, respectively. Each 1.0-mm increase in axial length in children 6, 12, and 17 years of age was associated with a 7.12-, 6.72-, and 6.85-μm decrease in retinal venular caliber, respectively. Corneal curvature was inversely associated with retinal vascular caliber among all age groups (P < 0.001). Among those without significant refractive error (>0.00 and <2.00 diopters), significant inverse associations were observed between axial length and corneal curvature with retinal vessel caliber among all age groups. Conclusions.: We demonstrate a similar magnitude of retinal vessel narrowing with axial length elongation and increasing corneal curvature from childhood through to adolescence. These data confirm the robustness of the associations between ocular biometric traits and retinal microvascular structural changes during childhood development.