This paper examines the adoption and effectiveness of environmental management initiatives. Specifically, it examines the association between the adoption of an environmental management system (EMS), both ISO14001-certified and non-certified, and the use of nine specific environmental management initiatives with environmental performance. Data were collected by mail survey questionnaire from a stratified random sample of 899 senior financial officers in Australian manufacturing organisations. The findings indicate that while organisations with an EMS achieved higher environmental performance, ISO14001 certification did not affect environmental performance. In addition, four environmental management initiatives were positively associated with environmental performance: having a documented plan of action for complying with relevant regulations; communicating documented procedures to employees; training employees to implement environmental procedures; and conducting internal and external audits to monitor the impact of operations on the environment. The findings provide management with an insight into the emphasis they should place on environmental management initiatives to improve their environmental performance.