The behavior of gallium confined in carbon nanotubes during heating and cooling

Zongwen Liu*, Rongkun Zheng, Kyle R. Ratinac, Simon P. Ringer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The thermal expansion of gallium (Ga) encapsulated in carbon nanotubes has been studied. It is demonstrated that the volumetric expansion and contraction of the Ga confined in the carbon nanotubes display a linear relationship with temperature. While the level of the tip of the Ga column changes linearly with temperature, it returns to its previous position, without any hysteresis, when reheated or cooled to the original temperature, provided the Ga has not frozen and electron-beam irradiation is minimized. It is shown that electron beam irradiation can cause shrinkage in carbon-nanotube diameter, and that a high-intensity electron beam can also induce the formation of new carbon shells inside the carbon nanotubes. Upon freezing, the solid Ga has two unique orientation relationships with the carbon nanotubes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-58
Number of pages4
JournalFunctional Materials Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The behavior of gallium confined in carbon nanotubes during heating and cooling'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this