The benzodiazepine dependence questionnaire

Development, reliability and validity

Andrew J. Baillie*, Richard P. Mattick

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)


Background. A short self-report questionnaire was developed to assess dependence on benzodiazepines (BZDs), the Benzodiazepine Dependence Questionnaire (BDEPQ). The BDEPQ is the first scale to assess dependence on BZDs comprehensively, as all existing scales focus exclusively on withdrawal symptoms. Method. To evaluate its internal consistency and construct validity, 302 regular BZD users were recruited from media advertisements and assessed on a number of measures. The BDEPQ was compared with measures of depression, anxiety, sleep quality, BZD withdrawal symptoms and neuroticism to assess its construct validity. A 3-4 month follow-up was conducted to assess the ability of the BDEPQ to predict changes in BZD consumption and future BZD withdrawal. Results. The BDEPQ was found to have high internal consistency and to be relatively stable over the follow-up period. Three subscales were identified, each with good internal consistency and temporal stability. The BDEPQ was able to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms. Conclusion. The BDEPQ was found to be a reliable and valid self-report instrument for the assessment of BZD dependence in samples approximating the general population of people using BZDs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-281
Number of pages6
JournalBritish Journal of Psychiatry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1996
Externally publishedYes

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