The Brazilian time and frequency atomic standards program

Mushtaq Ahmed, Daniel V. Magalhães, Aida Bebeachibuli, Stella T. Müller, Renato F. Alves, Tiago A. Ortega, John Weiner, Vanderlei S. Bagnato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Cesium atomic beam clocks have been the workhorse for many demanding applications in science and technology for the past four decades. Tests of the fundamental laws of physics and the search for minute changes in fundamental constants, the synchronization of telecommunication networks, and realization of the satellite-based global positioning system would not be possible without atomic clocks. The adoption of optical cooling and trapping techniques, has produced a major advance in atomic clock precision. Cold-atom fountain and compact cold-atom clocks have also been developed. Measurement precision of a few parts in 1015 has been demonstrated for a cold-atom fountain clock. We present here an overview of the time and frequency metrology program based on cesium atoms under development at USP São Carlos. This activity consists of construction and characterization of atomic-beam, and several variations of cold-atom clocks. We discuss the basic working principles, construction, evaluation, and important applications of atomic clocks in the Brazilian program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-252
Number of pages36
JournalAnais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Atomic clock
  • Cold atoms
  • Metrology
  • Time and frequency


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