The Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR): rationale and design of an unmatched "case-spouse control" study of over 10,000 participants in New South Wales, Australia

F. Sitas*, S. Yap, S. Egger, K. Christian, V. Hodgkinson, M. Barton, E. Banks, K. Canfell, D. L. O'Connell, V. Nair-Shalliker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: The New South Wales (NSW) Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR) is an open epidemiological bioresource, using an all cancer unmatched case-spouse control design. Participant characteristics and selected confirmed associations are compared to published estimates: current smoking and lung cancer; country of birth and melanoma; body mass index (BMI) and bowel cancer; and paternal history of prostate cancer and prostate cancer, to illustrate the validity of this design. Material and methods: Cases are NSW residents, ≫18 years, with an incident cancer of any type. Controls are cancer-free spouses of cases. Participants complete a consent form, a questionnaire, and provide an optional blood sample. For analyses, odds ratios for males and females are calculated for cancers and exposures of interest, by sex-matching controls to cases. Results: 10,816 participants (8569 cases, 2247 controls, 54% female) recruited to-date, median age: 61.6y cases, 61.3y controls. The top five cancer types are female breast (n=1691), prostate (n=1102), bowel (n=888), melanoma (n=608), and lung (n=265). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were: 20.65 (95% CI: 13.25-32.19) for lung cancer in current versus never smokers; 1.16 (1.05-1.28) for bowel cancer per 5kg/m2 increment in BMI; 1.41 (1.01-1.96) for melanoma in Australian-born compared to those born in UK/Ireland; and 2.47 (1.82-3.37) for prostate cancer in men with versus without a paternal history of prostate cancer. Discussion: This study design, where controls are the spouses of cases diagnosed with a variety of cancers and which are analysed unmatched, avoids potential biases due to overmatching, considered problematic in standard case-spouse control studies, and illustrates that risk estimates analysed are consistent with the published literature. CLEAR methodology provides a practical design to advance local knowledge on the causes of various leading and emerging cancers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)414-423
Number of pages10
JournalCancer Epidemiology
Volume39
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Australia
  • Biobank
  • Birthplace
  • BMI
  • Cancer
  • Case-control design
  • Case-spouse control design
  • Control selection
  • Family history
  • Smoking

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR): rationale and design of an unmatched "case-spouse control" study of over 10,000 participants in New South Wales, Australia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this