The Cannabis Problems Questionnaire: Factor structure, reliability, and validity

Jan Copeland*, Stuart Gilmour, Peter Gates, Wendy Swift

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To develop a multi-dimensional valid and reliable measure of cannabis-related problems. Method: The Cannabis Problems Questionnaire (CPQ) was developed from the Alcohol Problems Questionnaire to measure cannabis treatment outcome. The CPQ was administered on two occasions 1 week apart to a stratified sample of adults who had used cannabis at least once in the previous 3 months. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted and the relationship between items of the CPQ and measures of daily use and dependence assessed. The reliability of the CPQ was also assessed using a test-retest and inter-rater reliability methodology. Results: Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three factor solution best described the data accounting for 57% of the variance in the larger item set. The CPQ is highly reliable with test-retest tetrachoric correlations of between 0.92 and 1.00 and inter-rater reliability correlations between 0.74 and 1.00. The total CPQ score classified DSM-IV cannabis dependence with 84% specificity and sensitivity and daily cannabis use with 83% specificity and 55% sensitivity. Conclusions: The 22-item CPQ is a valid, reliable and sensitive measure of cannabis-related problems for use with clinical and research populations of current cannabis users.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)313-319
Number of pages7
JournalDrug and Alcohol Dependence
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 12 Dec 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Dependence
  • Marijuana
  • Psychometrics
  • Treatment outcome


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